This is another entry in a series of articles in which we talk about the fundamentals of how the internet works. We started with switches and routers and moved onto a bird’s eye view of the entire network stack.

In this article we will take a closer look at what is known as the Transport Layer (Layer 4) in the OSI model. This is the layer that segments, verifies and controls the flow of information between computers, and assigns various connections to ports. While Layer 4 is commonly associated with TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), there are other protocols that can…

In our last article we talked about switches and routers, two of the basic building blocks of the internet. In that article we mentioned that wires, switches and routers comprise the first three “layers” of a larger internet stack.

Today, we will zoom out and discuss what the other layers are up to Layer 7. We will analyze a message sent across the internet and witness its journey through all these layers.

OSI model

Let’s go over the OSI model first. The OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model consists of seven “layers of the internet.” They are named:

  • 1) Physical
  • 2)…

Switches and Routers are essential hardware pieces for the foundation of a network. In the beginning stages of the development of the computer, the need arose for computers to be able to talk to each other. Two computers were connected by a wire, and gradually, multiple computers were connected by switches and routers.

In this article, we will talk about Switches and Routers, how they work, and their differences.

First, to understand the development of Switches, we will take a look at hubs.

Hubs, the outdated switches

Hubs are a predecessor of switches that became outdated for good reason. Let’s…

A honeypot is a decoy target that attracts cyber attacks, distracting hackers from other important targets, and learns about how hackers do what they do.

In this article, we will discuss different types of honeypots and how they can help your business.

How honeypots work

A honeypot is supposed to imitate a real system that a hacker might want to attack. It is a fake system that doesn’t have any real data worth anything that the hacker can steal. If a honeypot is hacked, no real damage is done. …

There are lots of things that need to be done to ensure the security of a system or network. Sometimes this process can be long, tedious, and confusing to set up for yourself. Oftentimes you will need a professional to handle things for you.

Here we will provide 3 easy to use tools that you can use right now to improve the security of your system. They will help increase your awareness of cybersecurity and will also be fun to set up.

Canary Tokens

Canary Tokens are things that can inform you if your system has been broken into. Think…

There are many different types of cyber threats that a hacker can take advantage of to gain what they want. Some include phishing, malware, SQL injections, Denial-of-Service, or brute-force. All these terms and phrases can get confusing at times.

In this article, we break down for you the top 3 most common cyber attacks that target small businesses. After reading this, you should be more familiar with potential threats to your online assets.


Phishing is a method used by hackers to gain private information from you. Typically, an attacker will send an email to a target person, asking for…

Image credit:

The world of cybersecurity is full of buzzwords and technical terms that may seem impenetrable to a newbie. In our last blog post, we talked about how small businesses are vulnerable to cyber attacks because of a lack of education of what kinds of products are available.

In this blog post, we provide an overview of all the features common to most commercial cybersecurity packages. By the end of this post, the reader should be able to identify different types of software and rank their capabilities in terms of which features they do or do not have.

Ready? Let’s begin.


Image credit:

A common misconception of those new to cybersecurity is that only the largest of companies fall victim to cyber attacks. It would certainly seem that way if you got all of your tech news from TV. According to FireEye, 42% of small and mid-sized businesses do not see security as a big issue. Yet 77% of cyber attacks happen to these businesses!

Those 42% are more at risk than they think. What’s more, the effects of a cyber attack can be far more damaging to them.

Here are some ways that small businesses are especially vulnerable to cyber attacks, and…

Safehouse dev

Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store